music that follows you around the house: part 1. streaming to multiple players

Often when I come across an amazing new record I'll play it on repeat all day, every day for a week or two. My laptop's speakers are pretty decent, but unfortunately they don't levitate nearby as I move around my home. Though that is a problem I don't intend to solve, I figure the next best thing is have one device stream music all around my home, but have it playing only in the room that I am in.

This post is the first step on the way to set up this system. The aim for the final setup is to have three parts:

I opted to use Raspberry Pis for the server and playback clients, for ease of use and low energy consumption. By the end, playback clients will (hopefully) be able to fully disconnect their speakers from the power when they are not playing.

the music server

Starting with a pi that we can access over SSH, we need to give it access to our music library (remember to stick the storage disk into /etc/fstab with auto-mounting) and install mpd:

apt-get install mpd

Next, we need to configure mpd to stream its music throughout the local network. There are a number of ways to do this, each with their pros and cons. The most straightforward method is to use mpd's built-in httpd server.

To enable this, we need to add the following settings to /etc/mpd.conf (or alternatively $HOME/.config/mpd/mpd.conf):

music_directory "/path/to/music"
db_file         "/path/to/database"
log_file        "syslog"
state_file      "/path/to/state_file"

audio_output {
    type        "httpd"
    name        "Raspberry Pi Music Server"
    encoder     "flac"
    format      "44100:16:1"
    always_on   "yes"       # Stay connected to clients when music stops
    tags        "yes"       # Also stream tags
    port        "8000"
    max_clients "0"         # Allow unlimited clients

bind_to_address "any"   # allow remote access
port            "6600"
restore_paused  "yes"
auto_update     "yes"
user            "pi"    # run as user rather than root

This configuration makes mpd output audio via http on port 8000. Playback clients can then listen in on this stream and play it on connected speakers.

On port 6600 we have the usual mpd protocol communication with the server, which we can use to control music playback.

I've used encoder "flac" for lossless streaming, though other options can be used (described here).

mpd is packaged with a systemd service that works well to manage its process and logging. By using user "pi" above we can take advantage of the preconfigured sandboxing settings in this service by enabling it as is, before the process is transferred to a non-root user. Enable it with:

systemctl enable --now mpd.service

If we didn't use /etc/mpd.conf and instead wanted to use a different config file, we must change this line in /etc/default/mpd to add the config's path:


Now on to the clients.

playback clients

mpd also works great for playing back http streams, so my playback clients are also all Raspberry Pis with the mpd service enabled.

However, on these guys we need to configure the mpd config differently:

bind_to_address ""
log_file        "syslog"
state_file      "/path/to/state_file"

audio_output {
    type        "alsa"
    device      "hw:0,0"
    name        "speaker"

restore_paused  "no"
auto_update     "no"

We don't need remote access to mpd on these clients, as they just relay whatever is being played from the main server. As we aren't managing a library with this mpd instance we don't need to specify any paths for the music directory or database. For this same reason we don't need to enable auto_update. We also don't want to restore mpd into a paused state, because we want to use only the main server to control playback.

With this audio_output configuration, music is output through the headphone jack using alsa and out to speakers.

To make these clients listen to the http stream coming from the main server, simply add its URL to the client's playlist and enable repeat. We can do this using mpc:

apt-get install mpc
mpc repeat 1
mpc add http://<server ip address>:8000

Now they'll stay connected to the http stream, playing it non-stop, so pausing the main server's mpd pauses playback by all clients.

control clients

These clients are other devices we have on the network that we want to use to control playback, such as phones or laptops. To do this, we communicate with the main server using the MPD protocol to tell it what to do. Changes to playback are propagated to the playback clients that are listening in on the http stream.

To control the music, we simply need an mpd client pointed at the music serving pi. My favourite client is ncmpcpp, which can be installed from most distro package managers onto your PC. Using these arguments we can control the server:

ncmpcpp --host <server ip address> --port 6600

I have not yet tested out many mpd clients so I will save that for a later post. ncmpcpp is great for controlling the music from my PC, but if guests wanted to control the music then a web interface served up from the main raspberry pi might be a more convenient way for them to control it.

With the playback clients listening to the http stream, when we start playback from the main server and if we haven't had any bad luck then we should be hearing the music play!

If you don't hear anything playing from the pi's speakers, try with this line added to /boot/config.txt:


next steps

In any case, the steps in this post alone are enough to set up a sweet remote controlled speaker system!